Construction Specifications for Infiltration Practices

Infiltration Trench General Notes and Specifications

The infiltration trench systems may not receive run-off until the entire contributing drainage area to the infiltration system has received final stabilization.

1. Heavy equipment and traffic shall be restricted from traveling over the infiltration trench to minimize compaction of the soil.

2. Excavate the infiltration trench to the design dimensions. Excavated materials shall be placed away from the trench sides to enhance trench wall stability. Large tree roots must be trimmed flush with the trench sides in order to prevent fabric puncturing or tearing of the filter fabric during subsequent installation procedures. The side walls of the trench shall be roughened where sheared and sealed by heavy equipment.

3. A Class "C" geotextile or better shall interface between the trench side walls and between the stone reservoir and gravel filter layers. A partial list of non-woven filter fabrics that meet the Class "C" criteria is contained below. Any alternative filter fabric must be approved by the plan approval authority.

The width of the geotextile must include sufficient material to conform to trench perimeter irregularities and for a 6-inch minimum top overlap. The filter fabric shall be tucked under the sand layer on the bottom of the infiltration trench for a distance of 6 to 12 inches. Stones or other anchoring objects should be placed on the fabric at the edge of the trench to keep the trench open during windy periods. When overlaps are required between rolls, the uphill roll should lap a minimum of 2 feet over the downhill roll in order to provide a shingled effect.

4. A 6 inch sand filter layer may be placed on the bottom of the infiltration trench in lieu of filter fabric, and shall be compacted using plate compactors. The sand for the infiltration trench shall be washed and meet AASHTO Std. M-43, Size No. 9 or No. 10. Any alternative sand gradation must be approved by the Engineer or the reviewing agency.

5. The stone aggregate should be placed in lifts and compacted using plate compactors. A maximum loose lift thickness of 12 inches is recommended. The gravel (Rounded "Bank Run" gravel is preferred) for the infiltration trench shall be washed and meet one of the following AASHTO Std. M-43; Size No. 2 or No. 3.

6. Following the stone aggregate placement, the filter fabric shall be folded over the stone aggregate to form a 6-inch minimum longitudinal lap. The desired fill soil or stone aggregate shall be placed over the lap at sufficient intervals to maintain the lap during subsequent backfilling.

7. Care shall be exercised to prevent natural or fill soils from intermixing with the stone aggregate. All contaminated stone aggregate shall be removed and replaced with uncontaminated stone aggregate.

8. Voids can be created between the fabric and the excavation sides and shall be avoided. Removing boulders or other obstacles from the trench walls is one source of such voids, therefore, natural soils should be placed in these voids at the most convenient time during construction to ensure fabric conformity to the excavation sides.

9. Vertically excavated walls may be difficult to maintain in areas where soil moisture is high or where soft cohesive or cohesionless soils are predominate. These conditions may require laying back of the side slopes to maintain stability.

10. PVC distribution pipes shall be Schedule 40 and meet ASTM Std. D 1784. All fittings and perforations (1/2 inch in diameter) shall meet ASTM Std. D 2729. A perforated pipe shall be provided only within the infiltration trench and shall terminate 1 foot short of the infiltration trench wall. The end of the PVC pipe shall be capped.

11. The corrugated metal distribution pipes shall conform to AASHTO Std. M-36, and shall be aluminized in accordance with AASHTO Std. M-274. Coat aluminized pipe in contact with concrete with an inert compound capable of effecting isolation of the deleterious effect of the aluminum on the concrete. Perforated distribution pipe shall be provided only within the infiltration trench and shall terminate 1 foot short of the infiltration trench wall. An aluminized metal plate shall be welded to the end of the pipe.

12. The observation well is to consist of 6-inch diameter PVC Schedule 40 pipe (ASTM Std. D 1784) with a cap set 6 inches above ground level and is to be located near the longitudinal center of the infiltration trench. Preferably the observation well will not be located in vehicular traffic areas. The pipe shall have a plastic collar with ribs to prevent rotation when removing cap. The screw top lid shall be a "Panella" type cleanout with a locking mechanism or special bolt to discourage vandalism. A perforated (1/2 inch in diameter) PVC Schedule 40 pipe shall be provided and placed vertically within the gravel portion of the infiltration trench and a cap provided at the bottom of the pipe. The bottom of the cap shall rest on the infiltration trench bottom.

13. If a distribution structure with a wet well is used, a 4-inch PVC drain pipe shall be provided at opposite ends of the infiltration trench distribution structure. Two (2) cubic feet of porous backfill meeting AASHTO Std. M-43 Size No. 57 shall be provided at each drain.

14. If a distribution structure is used, the manhole cover shall be bolted to the frame.

NOTE: PVC pipe with a wall thickness classification of SDR-35 meeting ASTM standard D3034 is an acceptable substitution for PVC Schedule 40 pipe.

Infiltration Basins Notes and Specifications

The sequence of various phases of basin construction shall be coordinated with the overall project construction schedule. A program should schedule rough excavation of the basin with the rough grading phase of the project to permit use of the material as fill in earthwork areas. The partially excavated basin, however, cannot serve as a sedimentation basin.

Specifications for basin construction should state: (1) the earliest point in progress when storm drainage may be directed to the basin, and (2) the means by which this delay in use is to be accomplished. Due to the wide variety of conditions encountered among projects, each should be separately evaluated in order to postpone use as long as is reasonably possible.

  1. Initial basin excavation should be carried to within 1 foot of the final elevation of the basin floor. Final excavation to the finished grade should be deferred until all disturbed areas on the watershed have been stabilized or protected. The final phase excavation should remove all accumulated sediment. Relatively light tracked equipment is recommended for this operation to avoid compaction of the basin floor. After the final grading is completed, the basin provide a well-aerated, highly porous surface texture.

  2. Infiltration basins may be lined with a 6- to 12-inch layer of filter material such as coarse sand (AASHTO Std. M-43, Sizes 9 or 10) to help prevent the buildup of impervious deposits on the soil surface. The filter layer can be replaced or cleaned when it becomes clogged. When a 6-inch layer of coarse organic material is specified for discing (such as hulls, leaves, stems, etc.) or spading into the basin floor to increase the permeability of the soils, the basin floor should be soaked or inundated for a brief period, then allowed to dry subsequent to this operation. This induces the organic material to decay rapidly, loosening the upper soil layer.

  3. Establishing dense vegetation on the basin side slopes and floor is recommended. A dense vegetative stand will not only prevent erosion and sloughing, but will also provide a natural means of maintaining relatively high infiltration rates. Erosion protection of inflow points to the basin shall also be provided.

  4. Selection of suitable vegetative materials for the side slope and all other areas to be stabilized with vegetation and application of required lime, fertilizer, etc. shall be done in accordance with the NRCS Standards and Specifications or your local Standards and Specifications for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control.

  5. Grasses of the fescue family are recommended for seeding primarily due to their adaptability to dry sandy soils, drought resistance, hardiness, and ability to withstand brief inundations. The use of fescues will also permit long intervals between mowings. This is important due to the relatively steep slopes which make mowing difficult. Mowing twice a year, once in June and again in September, is generally satisfactory. Refertilization with 10-6-4 ratio fertilizer at a rate of 500 lb per acre (11 lb per 1000 sq ft) may be required the second year after seeding.